Using sox to add silence to sound files

Sometimes audio files are too short and does not match the length of the video files
Instead of making another reel with a silent soundtrack you can add some silence to the audio files using Sox.

To make a 48 khz 24 bit 10 second silent wav file with sox:
sox -n -r 48000 -b24 silent10sec.wav trim 0.0 10.0

To add this to the end of another 48 khz 24 bit sound file with sox:
sox film.LFE.wav silent10sec.wav film2.LFE.wav

In Ubuntu Linux you install sox using sudo apt install sox

On Windows you can install sox using Bash on Ubuntu on Windows and install sox with “apt install sox or get the binaries from the Sox homepage.

On Mac you can install sox using homebrew and install sox with brew install sox or get the binaries from the a href=””>Sox homepage.

Using Ubuntu linux inside Virtualbox on a Mac to format hard drives and do other DCP related stuff

You can run linux inside virtualbox on a mac (and windows).
You can also run Windows inside virtualbox on a mac.

Installing Ubuntu in virtualbox 
Download Ubuntu
I dowloaded ubuntu-16.04-desktop-amd64.iso

Download virtualbox and extensions

Install virtualbox
Click new
Choose Linux, Ubuntu 64 and a name like Ubuntu.

Choose RAM size. I used 2048 MB because it is recommended for Ubuntu 16.04

Choose Hard Disk size. I chose 15 GB and “create virtual hard disk file.”

Choose Hard disk file type. I left it at VDI.

Choose Storage on physical hard disk. I used fixed size because it faster.

Choose Location and size. Ubuntu and


Choose Virtualbox – preferences – extensions and install the Virtualbox extensions you downloaded. The extensions enables USB 3.

I upgraded the settings on the Ubuntu virtual machine:

Ubuntu – settings:

ports – USB – USB 3

Video – Memory – 128 MB

System – Processor 2 CPUs (Ubuntu 16.04 minimum requirements)

Choose the ubuntu linux image when you boot it the first time or add is as a cd rom.

You can now start the virtual machine.

Choose install Ubuntu

I used the default settings.

When Ubuntu is installed you can install the linux Guest additions.

Use Virtualbox – Devices – Install Guest Additions. The Guest additions enables adjusting the screen size of the virtual box and other things.

Let the program run.

Choose shutdown

You can set up a Shared folder in virtualbox that will be mounted in linux
Devices – Shared folder – Shared folder settings

Start the virtual machine again



Updating Ubuntu

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

You can copy files from EXT2 hard drives to Windows NTFS hard drives. NTFS hard drives can be read on macs.

Using Files/nautilus to access shared folders and copy files to EXT 2 hard drives.

You can start Files/nautilus as root to get read/write access.
in Terminal
sudo nautilus


Setting 755 permissions with chmod

in terminal
sudo chmod 755 -R /media/user/dcp/


Using asdcp tools

Download asdcplib

Extract it
Right click and choose extract here

Compile it
start a terminal in the asdcp folder
run these commands
sudo apt install libssl-dev
sudo ./configure
sudo make

Running asdcp-unwrap to extract the wav file from a mxf sound file
You can use asdcp-wrap to make MXFs

Open terminal in the folder where you want your wav file

Run asdcp-unwrap from the asdcp/src directory on the sound mxf file.

/home/user/Downloads/asdcp/src/asdcp-unwrap /media/user/dcp/sound.mxf

You can also drag the asdcp-unwrap file from the File manager to the terminal.
Then drag the mxf file to terminal.

The wav file can be imported in Adobe Audition.

Using Amazon S3 Simple Storage
Install Crossftp Pro to upload to Amazon S3 simple storage

Install java
sudo apt-get install default-jre
sudo apt-get install default-jdk
download portable crossftp and follow the instructions.
or download and install the crossftp linux deb package

change to the Downloads directory in Terminal or right click the directory and choose open terminal here.
open terminal
cd Downloads
sudo dpkg -i ./crossftp_deb_package.deb

Finding base64 sha-1 hash values
(You can also run this command in a terminal on a mac)

in Terminal:
openssl sha1 -binary "FILE_NAME" | openssl base64
source: wikipedia

Running Subtitle Edit in ubuntu.

You can run portable Subtitle Edit in linux. There is a discussion on the sub talk forum on how to run it.

You can run a basic version with video support. To do more advanced work I recommend using Windows. You can run Windows in Virtualbox on a mac.
You need to install mono-complete and Mplayer.
sudo apt install mono-complete
sudo apt install mplayer

If you open a video file in the Files/Nautilus file manager it asks if you want to install codecs.
I also installed these
sudo apt install vlc
sudo apt install mpv

Unzip the Subtitle Edit portable zip file
right click and choose extract here
In Terminal
sudo mono Subtitleedit.exe

Formatting a hard drive using Gparted

See this post for more info on gparted/parted/inode 128

run sudo apt install gparted to install gparted

Use Virtualbox – Devices – USB and enable the hard drive.

run gparted

sudo gparted

Click on “Device” – “Create a partition table”
Choose msdos.

Use add partition, add a label and format the drive as EXT2, NTFS, EXT4 or others.

Format the hard drive using mke2fs with inode 128
To format a hard drive as ext2 with 128 inode size, use this command in a terminal on the hard drive you want to format:
sudo mke2fs -t ext2 -I 128 -L DCP123 /dev/sdb1

Formatting a hard drive using Files/Nautilus without inode 128.
Unmount the hard drive in Mac OS if mounted.
Use Devices – USB – and enable the hard drive.
Right click it and use format.

Formatting a hard drive using gnome disks without inode 128
You can format a hard drive in the default disk manager.
Unmount the hard drive in Mac OS if mounted.
Use Devices – USB – and enable the hard drive.
In Terminal
sudo gnome-disk
gnome disks
If you want to format as EXT2 use custom file system and ext2, choose a label name and format.

Using Gnome Commander to copy files and set permissions

Install gnome commander
sudo apt install gnome-commander

run gnome commander
sudo gnome-commander

You can right click files and choose copy, then paste the files somewhere else.

You can right click files and check md5 checksums to check that files are copied correctly.

You can right click a folder and open a terminal in that directory

Should the SMPTE 431 digital cinema standards be updated for RGB LASER projectors?

Should the SMPTE 431 digital cinema standards be updated for RGB LASER projectors?

Higher contrast ratio

The SMPTE RP 431-2:2011 digital cinema standard document describes the reference projector viewing environments used in digital cinemas.
SMPTE 431 Review room 14 fL, 100:1 Intra frame contrast, 1500:1 Sequential contrast
SMPTE 431 Cinema Theatre 14 fL, 100:1 Intra frame contrast, 1200:1 Sequential contrast

When upgrading to RGB LASER projection the contrast ratio will improve.

Most cinemas will see a great improvement of contrast ratio and light levels with an upgrade to RGB Laser projectors.

This improvement will be noticeable on the DCPs used today.

Rec 2020 color space

New digital cinema projectors uses red, green and blue lasers as their light sources. They can reach (almost) the REC 2020 color space.

The RGB laser projectors also have much better contrast ratio and can reach higher light levels without ruining the black level.

The DCI-P3 color space and 1200:1 contrast ratio in SMPTE RP 431-2 are based on what you can achieve with a Xenon lamp projector.

REC2020 covers 99.9 percent of pointer’s gamut, while DCI-P3 cover 91.4 percent. Source

It would be difficult to use an automatic algorithm to map some of these colors to DCI-P3 without changing the artistic expression of the film.

The Alexa SXT camera can record in REC2020

This means that REC 2020 can do all the primary saturated colors, while DCI-P3 is much more limited. DCI-P3 lacks Cyan.

Cinemas is also limited to colors that can be achieved with 14 fL.


Barco White paper “What are ‘better pixels’?”

This Barco white paper from 1. february 2016 looks at REC.2020 and higher contrast ratio in cinemas with RGB laser projectors. They also recommend keeping the optical light path clean.

In practice, it turns out that some effort in reducing the auditorium reflectivity and lens glare (by e.g. keeping the lens and port hole clean of dust) can yield the same or better results than moving to HDR projection.


Dolby Vision and Imax Digital

You can watch RGB laser projection with (almost) REC 2020 color space and higher contrast ratios in Dolby Vision and IMAX Laser cinemas.
These cinemas can reach higher light levels and use bright colors that is not possible in ordinary cinemas.
Read a review of both here. 


A LASER IMAX system demonstration used an intra frame contrast checkerboard test image to show the intra frame contrast of their dual LASER projectors. They said in the demonstration that they changed the furnishing and changed the screen to get better contrast ratio.

Consumer products with P3 color space

Televisions UHD Alliance Premium requirements:

Image Resolution: 3840×2160

Color Bit Depth: 10-bit signal

Color Palette (Wide Color Gamut)

Signal Input: BT.2020 color representation

Display Reproduction: More than 90% of P3 colors

High Dynamic Range


A combination of peak brightness and black level either:

More than 1000 nits peak brightness and less than 0.05 nits black level

More than 540 nits peak brightness and less than 0.0005 nits black level

Apple is moving prosumer displays to the DCI-P3 color space. The first product is the Ipad Pro.  Source wikipedia.


Dual inventory of DCPs?

I think you can have two kinds of DCPs until all cinemas get RGB Laser or similar projectors:

RP 431-2:2011 DCPs for Xenon/UHP and Phosphor Laser projectors


RP 431-2:RGBLASER DCPs for RGB Laser projectors.

Dual inventory of DCPs is not a big problem.

DCP delivery services that uses fast internet to distribute DCPs to cinemas send the ATMOS DCP to the ATMOS cinemas and 7.1 DCP to the 7.1 cinemas.  In the future if a venue have a RGB laser projector, it would be easy to send them the RGB laser DCP instead of the xenon DCP.

RP 431-2:RGB LASER REC 2020 could possibly use:

-REC 2020 color space,
-higher luminance
-and higher contrast ratio
inside the 12 bit 2.6 gamma X`Y`Z` JPEG 2000 250 mbit encoding used in today’s DCPs.
Or use the SMPTE ST2084 EOTF standard to be able to use higher light levels.

Upgrading the light path
Changing screen and furnishing to get good intra frame contrast is essential to good projection.

I discussed this in this post:

 photo d9d6502a-58e5-41f0-9a9a-248f5798ebc5.jpg

If the intra frame contrast is bad you could try to:
– Clean the port glass and optics.
– Avoid spill light from projection booth.
– Use matte black seats and furnishing.
– Install an iris in the projector.
– Upgrade to a laser projector.

A laser projector will be better at reaching today´s 3D light levels with just one projector and better at reaching today’s standard contrast ratio. 6P Laser projectors can use 3D with matte white screens and one projector.

A new RGB Laser standard could keep today’s light levels and contrast ratios and just add REC2020 color space. Or the standard could go beyond today’s values. RGB Laser projectors could manage higher values. But in a dark viewing environment higher luminance values can seem very bright.

The higher contrast ratio you could get with a laser projector could be ruined by reflective furnishing in the auditorium and other factors like old silver screens.

There should be a certification that cinemas could get to show that they are RP 431-2:2011(Xenon) or (future) RP 431-2:RGBLASER certified and have the correct intra frame contrast ratio and light levels.

Or they could get a certification that say they reach the correct light levels in 2D and 3D. (Xenon projectors cinemas need to be able to reach these levels also when the lamp gets older.)

This way the public would know that kind of cinemas they can choose between.

Some tips on downloading and uploading DCPs and large files

Here are some tips on downloading and uploading DCPs and other large files like prores quicktime files:
-I recommended using a fast wired internet connection. (20/20 mbit/s).
-I recommend using these free download managers:
Easyget Lite on Mac
Free download manager on Windows.

Filemail links and many other download links can be resumed, so a download manager is important when downloading large files.


On you can send 30 GB files for free.

With a Filemail Pro or Business account you can send files with unlimited size.

-I recommend setting up your own Filemail business account if you ask people to upload a lot of files to you.

-With a Filemail business account you will have access to the files for longer and people can use a branded upload web page.

Filemail md5 hash check

Filemail shows the md5 checksum on the download page if you enable it in the settings for the business download page. This way you can check if the uploaded file is correct. You can find the MD5 checksum of a file with utilities like Hash Tab for windows and Hash Tab for mac You also use the command md5 in a terminal on a Mac to generate a md5 file hash value.
You can also use the command certutil -hashfile "file" md5 on windows 7, 8, 10 in a command prompt.
If the sender checks that the MD5 checksum is the same you will know that the file is OK.

Amazon S3

Amazon S3 can be used to deliver and receive big files on the internet.
-You can use the s3 web uploader or use CrossFtp and similar programs to upload to S3. Crossftp Pro can use multipart and integrity checks when uploading so you will know the uploaded file is working.
-After uploading you can make the link accessible (public) and give the clients the S3 download link.
-S3 storage is very reliable and scalable. You pay for each download.
-If you want a client to upload a file to a s3 upload bucket you can make an upload user in with a policy that enables the user to upload to that upload bucket.

Like this policy:

] }

– then give the client the access key and secret key for the upload user. (with this policy the user will see all buckets, but can only upload to the examplebucket bucket.


Send 7z archive files

-I ask people to make a 7z archive of the quicktime file or DCP folder before they send it. I recommend Keka on mac or 7zip on Windows.
-7z archives can be protected with encryption and a password and have a built in hash check. If you get an error extracting the 7z file you probably have the incorrect md5 checksum. If there is a PAR 2 recovery file you can use it to fix the file or download it again.
-The 7z file can be uncompressed when sending prores files but if you want to send a uncompressed quicktime file or text files I suggest using normal compression. A uncompressed quicktime file will be reduced to half the size after 7z compression.
-In Keka, choose 7z and store, then drag the folder to the Keka window
-You can also split the archive in parts and upload the file in parts. Example 20 GB.

Include a md5 hash value of the file
-When sending files include a md5 hash value of the file. This will enable the receiver to check the integrity of the file on arrival. You can find the md5 checksum of files with utilities like Hash Tab for windows and Hash Tab for mac.
You also use the command md5 in a terminal on macs to generate a md5 file hash value.
-Start a terminal. write md5 and space, then drag the file to window and push enter.

-On windows you can search for cmd, start cmd, type certutil -hashfile , then drag the file to the command prompt window, and then type md5 and enter.

Use a PAR2 recovery file as backup
-You can use MultiPar or MacPAR Deluxe PAR 2 recovery file with 1-5 percent redundancy. PAR2 files with 1 percent redundancy are 1 percent of the size of original file. If the downloaded file is corrupted, you can use the PAR 2 recovery file to recover the file instead of downloading again (or uploading and downloading again).

Multipar with 5 percent redundancy.




Macpar Deluxe with 3 percent redudancy.

Choose File – New Par 2 set

Drag the file and save.



DCP and quicktime specific advice

-When downloading a DCP folder in Filezilla from a FTP server, I downloaded the XML files and the rest of the files as binary to get them to pass the file hash check in Easydcp Player.

-Ask people who submit DCPs to use the archive format 7z instead of zip. This way you can avoid the (large) Mac OS archive utility zip files that can only be opened by the Mac OS archive zip utility. Both Keka and 7-Zip can make 7z archives.

-Sometimes I get a error message when opening a quicktime file on windows pc that was made on a mac. If I rename the file it works.

-I recommend checking DCPs in Easydcp player. The trial version will let you know if the DCP fails some checks. You can also run a file hash check.

You should also make a DCP quality checklist that may include:
-Is the DCP named correctly?
Is it in the correct scope or flat format? The DCP should have a correct digital naming convention name. Example: The DCP is called Dcpname_SHR_S but is actually Dcpname_SHR_F because the subtitles are burned in too low and will be cropped at a scope preset in one of your venues.
-Is the DCP in the correct language/subtitle language?
-Will the DCP play at your venue. Example: You may have a server with old firmware that can play 25 SMPTE DCPs with burned in subtitles, but not SMPTE 2010 subtitles. I work mostly with Doremi servers that will accept SMPTE 2010 subtitles.

-If you have downloaded a DCP folder archive like DCP.7z on a mac and want to ingest in on a digital cinema media block/server/player you can extract it to a DX115 hard drive or similar.

Other tips

-If you get an error message extracting a zip file in Keka that says error code 2 using p7zip, you probably need to extract the zip file with mac os archive utility. (Big zip files made with mac os archive utility needs to be extracted with mac os archive utility.)

-Free Download manager names the downloaded file from filemail “Get”, rename it to the correct name.

Playing Blu-Rays in a Cinema (Movie Theatre)

Blu-Rays and H264 files are sometimes used instead of DCPs.

Modern Blu-ray players send the video and sound signal through the HDMI connection. When choosing which Blu-Ray player to use in a cinema/movie theatre you should first check if you need analog 5.1 sound output.

Many Blu-Rays only have DTS MASTER HD 7.1/5.1 sound. That means no Dolby digital 5.1 bit-stream that can be used on the SPDIF input on cinema audio processors like the CP-650.

Players with analog 5.1 sound can connect to the analog 5.1 input on most cinema sound processors.

To connect the 5.1 phono output to a Dolby CP-650 and other cinema equipment you need an unbalanced 5.1 Phono to DB25 cable.
Like this one:

Some newer cinema equipment may accept the DTS HD Master bitstream from HDMI or 5.1 uncompressed sound from HDMI.

Other features that is useful in a cinema:
-Common height (CIH) settings
-Lipsync adjust.
-Remove On Screen Display
-Adjust Brightness/contrast
-Advanced film/video/cadence detection for DVD.
-H264 Media file playback
-Adjust speaker trim level
-LPCM output
-RS232 control

The OPPO UDP-203 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc Player has these features according to the manual.

More info on the features that are useful in cinemas:

Switchable Video level/Computer level RGB HDMI out
The DVI input on some projector expects computer level RGB input.
Because of HDCP protection you can´t use a HDMI TO SDI converter.
To hook the Blu-Ray player directly to the projector you may want to use a computer level RGB output setting on the Blu-ray player.

You will often get a smoother picture connecting directly to the Projector with a DVI TO HDMI cable instead of using a scaler. Scalers often does not accept bitstream sound and may introduce audio lag.

Common height (CIH) settings
Useful if you want to adjust the placement of subtitles on scope films in a common height cinema.
A common height cinema uses a 2.39:1 screen.
If the subtitles are “burned in” below the picture you can´t screen the movie in scope and need to either make a custom preset on the projector or screen it in Flat.

Lipsync adjust.
Adjusting the sync with a sync clip played from the blu-ray player is helpful if the sound is out of sync.

-Remove On Screen Display
If you don’t want to show the play and pause icons it is important to turn off OSD.

-Adjust Brightness/contrast
Badly mastered Blu-rays may have elevated blacks or bad white levels, this is corrected with the Brightness (black level) and Contrast (white level) settings.

-Source Direct mode
Turn of video processing. Sends a clean signal.

-Advanced film/video/cadence detection for DVD.
Can auto detect if the DVD source is progressive (film) or interlaced (video). Can fix bad cadence.

-Media file playback
You can play MP4 and other H264 formats from a USB flash drive.

Resolve 11 adds 12 bit monitoring support with the BlackMagic Decklink 4K Extreme and the UltraStudio 4K

12 bit monitoring is great when grading LOG for digital cinema (DCP) on a 12 bit digital cinema projector.

To have the correct black level and correct contrast ratio you will need the correct review room contrast ratio in the cinema: 1500:1, 100:1 intra frame. Movie theaters have 1200:1.

You will also need the correct white light level (14 fL) in the cinema to get the contrast correct.

You will also need a dark room.

See this post for more info on good projection.

Resolve 11 beta 2/Desktop Video 10.1.3 adds dual link 3GB HD-SDI DCI 12 bit monitoring with the Decklink 4K Extreme and the BlackMagic Design UltraStudio 4K

12-bit 4:4:4 video monitoring support with Decklink 4K Extreme and Ultrastudio 4K (up to Stereo 2K DCI)

-What’s new in Resolve 11 Beta 2
BlackMagic resolve website

How to make 3D LUTs in Nuke (R´B´G´to X´Y´Z´)

Updated in 2016 with some clarifications

The built in SRGB TO XYZ conversion used in some DCP conversion software do not have the correct color science.

See this post for more info.

The included XYZ 3D LUTs in this post are proof that you can generate 3D LUTs using the color science math from the REC709 example on page 42 in the “SMPTE Digital Cinema White Gamut Practices Study Group Report” by Rod Bogart and Rick Sayre.

The R´G´B´ values 4095, 4095, 4095 ends up as 3883 3960 4092 in X´Y´Z´
page 42 photo page42.png

The “SMPTE Digital Cinema White Gamut Practices Study Group Report” (Linkfrom 2009 concluded that the color science used to make some commercial DCPs around 2008 was not correct (out of gamut).

The color science is explained more in SMPTE EG 432-1:2010

They explain how to use D55, D60, D61 and D65 as mastering whites and how these white points fit inside X´Y´Z´. They explain that DCI White is not necessary the mastering white.

With SMPTE 431.2:2011 they made a new projector configuration file (PCF) standard that is called Virtual White.

The DCI specifications tells the cinemas to calibrate their projectors according to SMPTE 431.2:2011.


Update 2016

The color science math do get to X´Y´Z´ in this post produces the correct values for white in X´Y´Z.

Someone involved with the color science posted on this mailing list how D60 as mastering white looks best in dark cinema with 14 fL. He also says that it is possible to use D65 as a mastering white, but the ACES color space uses D60 as default because it is a good choice at 14 fL.

In NUKE you can make 3D LUTs for Resolve and other software that have 3×3 SMPTE RP-177 color matrix conversions, gamma conversions and multiplications baked in.

The generateLUT node is now disabled in NUKE non-commercial (formerly PKL).


Blackmagic Davinci Resolve

Example 1:
Making a REC709/SRGB R´G´B´to DCDM X´Y´Z´ 3D LUT for Resolve:

How to make a R`G`B` to X´Y´Z´ 3D LUT in NUKE:


-In the CMSTestPattern node I used a Cube size of 65, alternatives are 33 or 17.

-Linearize the R´G´B´ to RGB with a gamma function in a Gamma node: Example: 2.4 simplified gamma function= 0.416667
Alternative: SRGB 2.2 simplified gamma function=0.45

-Apply the rec709/SRGB RGB XYZ to RP-177 3×3 NPM color matrix in a ColorMatrix node.

The NPM from matlab after doing the RP-177 math is:
0.412390799265959 0.357584339383878 0.180480788401834
0.212639005871510   0.715168678767756 0.072192315360734
0.019330818715592   0.119194779794626 0.950532152249661

The middle row sums to 1.

The NPM after copying and pasting into the Nuke colormatrix node:

0.4123908  0.3575843   0.18048079
0.21263901 0.71516867 0.07219232
0.01933082 0.1191948   0.95053215

This is very similar to the example.

The middle row should sum to 1 according to RP-177 so I changed 0.71516868 to 0.71516867.

-Apply the normalizing constant multiplication in a multiply node. Luminance (48) divided by the normalizing constant (52.37) = 0.91655527
After pasting it into nuke it is shorten to:

-Apply the DCP 2.6 gamma in a Gamma node to get X´Y´Z´ values.

-In the GenerateLut node I put: .3dl, 12 bit in/out, 3dl file format
autodesk flame/smoke.
Alternative: 16 bit.

The values for 4095,4095,4095 in the resulting 3D LUT (12 bit 3dl integer file) is:
3883 3960 4092


This is the correct result for D65 in X´Y´Z´
and it is the same result as in the example conversion.
page 42 photo page42.png

With this 3D LUT you are inside the Virtual white X´Y´Z´ gamut (SMPTE 431.2:2011 compliant).

To convert this 3D LUT to a floating point .Cube 3d LUT that is compatible with Resolve and After Effects I used opencolorio.
In terminal on a mac I use this command to convert the 3D LUT:

ociobakelut –lut srgbtoxyz.3dl –format iridas_itx –cubesize 65 srgbtoxyz.cube

to install opencolorio/ociobakelut I used these commands on a mac:

/usr/bin/ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL”

brew doctor

brew install opencolorio

Download a 10 MB 7z archive with the SRGB 3D LUTS file here
It includes these 3D LUTS (The cube 3d luts are in float)

Usage in Resolve (updated for Resolve 11)

The CUBE LUT can be placed in a folder you call Nuke or DCP inside Resolve´s LUT folder:
On a Mac: /Library/Application Support/Blackmagic Design/Davinci Resolve/LUT
On a PC: C:\ProgramData\Blackmagic Design\DaVinci Resolve\Support\LUT\

In Resolve you can apply it to the timeline from:
Project settings – Timeline Lookup tables – 3D Output Lookup table
or you can use a corrector node

You can render DCPs directly from Resolve with the Resolve Easydcp plugin. If you choose DCI X´Y´Z´ in the timeline color space no color transform will be applied and you can use the 3D luts to DCI X´Y´Z´ from this post.
See this post for more info.

Or export to another format and use it in Fraunhofer Easydcp .

Usage in After Effects
The resulting 3D LUT converted to .CUBE can be used in a non-linear 32 bit Adobe After Effects CC project
with the apply color LUT effect
when exporting 16 BIT TIFF or similar
or DCI jpeg2000 sequences with the Fnord DCI JPEG2000 encoder.

Usage in Easydcp
The 3DL 3D LUT can be applied in Easydcp.

In Easydcp Creator 2.2 you have the option to make custom color transformations. You can modify the 3×3 matrix, gamma, normalization constant/multiplication to suit your workflow. This is better than using 3D LUTs that has these color transformations baked in.
Read more about the custom color transformations in this post.


Example 2.
P3D65 to X´Y´Z´

The same example as I used in this post.
This 3D LUT can be used with Arri Alexa material that has the
C-log to P3 D65 3D LUT applied.
Link:Arri lut generator


Changed the color matrix node to:

The DCI-P3 D65 NPM from matlab after doing the RP-177 math:

0.486570948648216 0.265667693169093 0.198217285234362
0.228974564069749 0.691738521836506  0.0792869140937450                 0                                  0.045113381858903  1.043944368900976

The NPM after copying and pasting into the Nuke colormatrix node:

0.48657095  0.26566769  0.19821729
0.22897457  0.69173852    0.07928691
0                     0.04511338    0.04511338

The middle row sums to 1
0.22897457+0.69173852+0.07928691 = 1

It is similar to the P3 D65 NPM from SMPTE EG 432-1-10


Changed the gamma function node to 1/2,6=0.384615385 for P3
It becomes 0.384615 after pasting into Nuke.

Example P3 D65 to X´Y´Z´3D LUTS:

Download a 4 MB 7z archive with the P3 D65 3D LUTS file here
It includes these 3D LUTS (The cube 3d luts are in float):

Easydcp player 2.0 with support for variable quality settings, Supplemental packages, SMPTE subtitles and HD-SDI

New features in Easydcp player 2.0

Link: Easydcp player tutorials

Burn in subtitles when exporting.

Drag and drop

You can make a playlist of films. You can save playlists. You can loop playlists.

Supplemental packages,
Most localized DCPs have the subtitles as supplemental packages that adds subtitles or sound to the original DCP,
these can be loaded together with the main DCP so you can play the DCP with subtitles and different sound.

Variable quality settings
You can move a Quality slider until you get a reasonable FPS playback level.
You can lower the quality of the playback without it being noticeable. Example: It will use 10 bit processing instead of 12 bit processing.
I tried this on a Quad core Mac Mini and I could play back different DCPs without lowering the quality slider much.

SMPTE subtitles
Easydcp player 2.0 now support SMPTE subtitles.

Customizable color transforms
You can edit the color transforms to fit your monitor/projector.

HD-SDI and HDMI out

The Ultrastudio 4K has 2K HD-SDI out

Playing the DCPs through HD-SDI can get you closer to the quality of HD-SDI digital cinema servers.

With HD-SDI you can output the DCP in the same frame rate as the DCP (like 24 or 25 FPS) and in 2K resolution.
If you connect the HD-SDI to a digital cinema projector you can send it a clean signal with subtitles, but without color transform and let the projector do the color transform.


Quad core 2.6 Ghz Mac mini
I used a quad core Mac mini to play a DCP without color transform enabled (but with subtitles) through the HD-SDI (HD) output on the Ultrastudio mini monitor.
It worked with the quality slider almost at the top. This will vary with the source. Films with film grain are more difficult to decode than video films.
With both color transform and scaling to HD enabled you need a more powerful computer/graphic card.

The Blackmagic HD-SDI device should be used as the 5.1 sound card. I got 5.1 sound from the HD-SDI output, but only 2 channels from the HDMI output connected to a receiver.

To get 5.1/7.1 sound from SDI you can use a SDI to (AES 8 channels) audio de-embedder:

Blackmagic Design Mini Converter SDI to Audio 4K

With a sync test DCP you can adjust the sync with the +/- Sound Latency settings.

Computer with CUDA GPU JPEG2000 decoder
Resources: manual and the FAQ

You can use a PC with the CUDA JPEG 2000 decoder and a Decklink HD-SDI card.

To use the CUDA GPU JPEG2000 decoder you need an extra GPU, you can use a Geforce 570 card or better.

You can watch 4K through the graphics card, but you need a powerful computer to play 4K DCPs in 4K resolutions

link: Fraunhofer Test chart

The Decklink 4K and Ultrastudio 4K support 4K through HDMI or 3G HD-SDI, but Easydcp player only support 4K output through a video card.

Easydcp Creator 2.2 with customizable color transformations and support for ALEXA/P3 workflows

Easydcp Creator 2.2 has some new features:

Support for Closed Subtitles/Closed Captions and Open Captions

Extended Pillar-/Letterboxing

Feature to preview and burning the subtitles directly into the image content

New work-flow for activating the software within minutes

link:Fraunhofer online tutorials

Extended Pillar-/Letterboxing
All the reels need to be the same resolution in a DCP. if you have a logo in HD and the film in Flat, you can choose to enable Flat pillar-boxing on the Logo.

You can choose between full container, automatic, flat or scope.

This setting add pillar-boxing and letterboxing automatically.

You can add the original aspect ratio in the name of the DCP Digital naming convention. Example: 16/9 = F-178 or 4/3 = F-133

Most cinemas only have Flat or Scope settings for side masking, but for those cinemas that have manual side masking they can set them correctly.

Full container
If you know a cinema has a full container preset on their projector you can make a DCP with a mix of scope and flat films without scaling with this setting.

Useful when fitting scope material inside a flat DCP. Useful when making Trailers in both scope and flat format.
Also useful when combining scope and flat films inside a flat DCP.

Does not fit flat inside scope, it crops letter-boxed sources to fit inside the scope container. This is useful when using XML subtitles that are shown 10 percent from the bottom of the container.

Burning in subtitles.
You can burn in the subtitles.
You can also see a preview of the subtitles in the preview window.
25 FPS DCPs with burned in subtitles are compatible with some old digital cinema servers.
If you are making both 25 and 24 fps versions, you can first make the 25 fps version and then use the same file in the 24 fps version.

Drag and drop
You can drag mxf files and DCPs to the asset list.

Audio silence:
You can mark audio channels with a silence button instead of using blank audio files.

Other new features

Customizable XML color transformation files
You can choose your own color transformation using custom 3×3 matrix transformation and custom gamma values.

There are two transformation XML files included:
BT.709 with 2.2 gamma
P3 DCI 2.6 gamma.

Change gamma in the rec709 transformation
You can copy the rec.709 transformation to a new file and change the gamma function value in the XML file to suit your workflow.

Here are some examples of gamma function values:

1/2,2=0,45 (simplified 2.2 gamma)
SRGB monitor gamma and commonly used on HDTV monitors.

2.4 is the recommended gamma for HDTV monitors in the new ITU-R BT-1886 recommendations Link:ITU-R BT-1886

The same gamma as DCPs.

Can video display or “emissive” monitors be used for Digital Cinema mastering? Pines touched on the Stevens effect (that perceived contrast decreases at lower luminance), Hunt effect (that perceived colorfulness also decreases at lower luminance) and display flare characteristics. “The same content has to look good in a normal surround (office), dim surround (living room) and dark surround (theatrical),” said Pines.

Reference Monitor Symposium

You want to use rec.709 2.6 gamma. You use a gamma function value of 0.384615385.

Changing the normalization constant multiplication
To move away from the edge of the color space you can lower the number of the white projector luminance

You can change the P3 DCI 2.6 gamma transformation to P3 D65 and P3 D55 by changing the 3×3 matrix
There are P3 D65, P3 D55 and other NPM 3×3 matrix examples in SMPTE EG 432-1-10.

You want to convert a 16 tiff RGB sequence from Resolve that has a
C-log to P3 D65 3D LUT or
C-log to P3 DCI WHITE 3D LUT
Link:Arri lut generator

To convert it you use the standard Easydcp P3 DCI WHITE XML transformation

or make a custom P3 D65 transformation

with this NPM from this post this post

0.48657095 0.26566769 0.19821729
0.22897457 0.69173852  0.07928691
0                  0.04511338   1.04394437

More info

With the P3 D65 workflow you can:

-First use the C-Log to Rec709 3D LUT on a rec709 monitor (D65)

-move to a P3 2.6 gamma D65 projector and and view it using the C-Log to P3 D65 3D lut.

-Then make the DCP in Easydcp with the custom P3 D65 transformation.


White point targets white values:

REC 709 D65 projector White = 4095,4095,4095 at 14 fL
In DCDCM X’Y’Z’ D65 is 3883, 3960, 4092 at 14 fL

P3 D65 projector White = 4095,4095,4095 at 14 fL
In DCDCM X’Y’Z’ D65 is 3883, 3960, 4092 at 14 fL

P3 DCI WHITE projector=White 4095,4095,4095 at 14 fl
In DCDCM X’Y’Z’ DCI WHITE is 3794, 3960, 3890 at 14 fL

You can adjust the normalizing constant variable to be within these targets.

The white in the film you are making do not have to be D65 or DCI WHITE, you can use any creative white you want to.

The P3 primaries are wide-gamut relative to desktop standards; pure sRGB red is relatively desaturated with a distinctly orange-red hue, while pure P3 red is blood red, almost on the spectral locus. The DCI white point is not necessarily the creative white point used in mastering. Productions are free to master to any white point they prefer, provided all mastered colors falls within the allowed DCI gamut. Indeed, for artistic considerations the (0.314, 0.351) white point is often avoided due to its greenish cast relative to the daylight curve.

– Visual Effects Society: White paper: Cinematic Color: From Your Monitor to the Big Screen

DCDCM X’Y’Z can have D65, D55 and DCI WHITE white points at 14 fL. Source: SMPTE RP 431-2:2011

The Disney test image DCP that is shown in the background of this picture from this post has DCI WHITE in the middle and D55 and D65 white squares: All of these are at 14 fL.
 photo cfdeb80b-1e9f-4a3a-856a-98cf97821e86.jpg

You can also calculate NPM 3×3 matrixes yourself by applying the math in SMPTE RP 177 / SMPTE EG 432-1-10 to the primaries and reference white point of the mastering projector native color space.

P3 with other white points than D65, D55 and DCI White could make the DCP go out of gamut. Larger color spaces than P3 will not fit and need to be fitted. SMPTE EG 432-1-10 has more info on how to get the transformations to fit.

These color transformation can also be saved as 3D LUTs in Nuke and applied in Resolve, After Effects and Fraunhofer Easydcp.
See this post for more info.

The MFT Blackmagic Cinema Camera cost USD 1999. Is it a good choice for low-budget digital cinema filmmakers?


The MFT Blackmagic Cinema Camera cost USD 1999.

Is it a good choice for low-budget filmmakers doing a digital cinema (DCP format) production?

The SSD BMDFILM Prores/Raw recording mode of the BMMC is great for DCPs. But if you need to film in low-light or in slow motion (high frame rate) there are better alternatives. Like renting the Arria Alexa SXT.  Or using the Panasonic GH4 or the Sony A7S II.

-You get the full version of Resolve (USD 995).
The full version lets you work in
DCI 4K, (the free Lite version is limited to 2K/UHD)
use multiple GPUs
and use noise reduction.
The Resolve USB dongle gives you a lifetime license to Resolve.

-It records 13 stops of light in the BMDFILM RAW (Compressed CinemaDNG) format.

-It has a cinematic 25P/24P 180 degree shutter mode.

-It has framing lines for 2.39:1 and 1.85:1 cinema aspect ratios.

-It can record in 2.5 K. You can crop and scale the footage to DCI 2K or DCI 4K to make 2K or 4K DCPs:

-No super35 cinema sensor.
A Super 35 sensor has a 1,4 crop factor compared to a full sensor. It is the standard sensor size used on cinema cameras.

The Blackmagic Cinema Camera sensor has a 2.3 crop factor compared to a full sensor. You can compare the Field of View (FOV) at the FOV comparisor.

The MFT version can use a Blackmagic cinema camera Metabones speedbooster to achieve the FOV of a super 35 mm sensor. Or use a MFT speedboster to achieve almost the FOV of Super 35.

-It lacks cinema color space 3D LUT support (P3).
Low budget productions often use rec709 for cinema productions.

-It lacks Pro audio XLR connections with phantom power.
You can use an external audio recorder. Or an adapter.


Summary of BMMC features
-Internal monitor with focus peaking, histogram, audio levels, framing lines.
-Records compressed cinemaDNG 12 bit log 2.5 K 16/9 (2400—1350) raw video to SSD.
-Records 1920×1080 Prores/Dnxhd with film (log) or video dynamic range.
-1920×1080 HD-SDI 422 10 bit out.
-Records 23,98, 24, 25, 29,97 or 30 FPS.
-200, 400, 800, 1600 ASA settings. 800 is the camera native ASA.
-3200K, 4500K, 5000K, 5600K, 6500K, 7500K color temperature settings.
-180 degree shutter. It also has a 172.8 degree shutter for using 24P in countries with 50 hz power to avoid flicker from indoor lighting. It has 360 degree shutter for low light. It also has: 45, 90, 108, 144, 216, 270 and 324 degree shutter modes.
-Time lapse mode
-Built-in microphone and two audio inputs.
-Includes the full version of Resolve (4K, multiple GPUs, noise reduction)

With the BMMC Camera firmware 2.1 you can use the 2.39:1 and 1.85:1 framing lines when shooting.

The BMCC compared to other cameras

The Competition

The Panasonic GH5 and the The Sony A7S II are more popular at B&H Photo.

The Panasonic GH5
-400 Mbps 4:2:2 10-bit All-Intra video internal recording

The Sony A7S II

-Slog 3 capture in 8 bit XAVC-S.
-Good low-light capture
-Internal UHD capture
-Full frame
-Super 35 mm mode
-120 FPS 1080 mode
-Big sensor
-Supports Sony 55mm F1.8 Sonnar and other full frame e-mount full frame lenses. Can use adapters for Contax, Nikon and other lenses.

The GH5 and Sony A7s II cameras compared to the BMCC:
-both have native Pro Audio add ons with phantom power.
-are both better in low light, especially the Sony A7S II.
-both have higher frame rates for slow motion.
-have a bigger sensors, especially the A7s II. The GH4/5 has a 4/3 mode that can be used with 2x anamorphics.


Other digital cine cameras:

Canon C300 MKII
-Good in low light

-4K (4096 x 2160) internal recording

Blackmagic Design URSA Mini Pro 4.6K Digital Cinema Camera
-4608 x 2592 Video up to 60p

Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera

-A Super 16 sensor has a 3x crop factor compared to a full sensor and a 2.1 crop factor compared to a super 35 mm sensor.
-You can use Metabones Speed Boosters to reduce the crop factor to 1.75x (Super35)
-This camera can use the active Panasonic MFT lenses.
-A 14 mm lens has the same FOV as a 48 mm lens on a full sensor and 30 mm on a super 35 sensor
-With a m43 adapter you can use some super 16 mm lenses.
-The Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera is limited to HD resolution so you need to upscale and crop to reach 2K resolutions.
-Records lossless compressed CinemaDNG raw and Prores 422 on SDXC cards like the SanDisk Extreme PRO UHS-I/U3 SDXC 512GB Memory Card
-Lots of rigs like the Redrock Micro retroFlex Rig Bundle


More Expensive/Rentals

-High frame rate

Arri Alexa SXT Studio
-P3 3D LUT
-Rotating Mirror Shutter
-records in DCI 4K
-records in UHD
-WCG (Wide Color Gamut) is rec2020 compatible

Panasonic Varicam 35
-DCI 4K prores 4444
-Variable Frame Rate 1 to 120 fps in 4K

Sony F55
Sony link
-Global Shutter
-4K Raw/240 FPS 2K Raw recording with the AXS-R5 Recorder


The DCP format (Digital Cinema Package) and the BMCC compared

DCP Resolutions
-DCPs uses these standard resolutions:
2K Flat 1.85: 1 1998×1080
2K Scope 2.39:1 2048×858
4K Flat 1.85: 3996 x 2160
4K Scope 2.39: 4096 x 1716
-Getting the resolution correct is important.
-Flat and Scope are the standard presets in all cinemas.
-1.78:1 (16/9) and 2.35:1 films can get image artifacts (trapezoid shape) in the cinema because the standard side masking presets are made for 1.85 and 2.39.
-Scope films are projected wider than Flat films in a common height cinema.
-A 4K DCP is compatible with 2K and 4K projectors.
-Full container (C) 2048×1080/4096×2160 is not used by Hollywood feature films. Films made with these resolutions will probably be projected in Flat with cropping on the sides at most cinemas.

DCP frame rates
-Interop DCPs uses these frame rates: 24, 48
-Newer digital cinema equipment support SMPTE DCPs and can play these 2K frame rates: 24, 25, 30, 48, 50, 60, 4K frame rates: 24, 25, 30
-In Europe where many productions are 25 FPS = 25 SMPTE DCPs are common. You can have a 24 FPS version as backup.

BMCC frame rates
The BMCC can record in 23,98, 24, 25, 29,97 and 30 FPS.

DCP = 12 bit 2.6 gamma
-DCPs uses 12 bit 2.6 gamma encoding and preserve more dynamic range and shadow detail than 2.2 gamma 8 bit web videos.

BMCC = 12 bit Log
The BMCC can record cinemaDNG in 12 bit log 2.5 K 16/9 raw video,
12 bit LOG gives you more information in the important darker areas than in the brighter areas of the picture. This is similar to digital cinema DCPs that use 12 bit 2.6 gamma encoding which also gives you more range in the important darker regions of the picture.

DCP P3 color space
-DCPs can use the P3 color space with more saturated primary colors, but you can also use ordinary SRGB/rec.709. Many no-budget films use rec.709.

The Arri Alexa camera got a documented wide gamut and pre-made 3D LUTs to convert C-Log Prores or RAW footage to Rec. 709, P3 DCI, P3 D65.

The BMCC only comes with a rec709 3D LUT. 

DCP: 250 mbit jpeg2000 compression
-24 FPS DCPs uses 250 mbit jpeg2000 encoding which preserves a lot of detail and can keep more film grain/noise than 10 mbit web videos.
-It will also keep high ISO noise, fake film grain or added noise.
-Film grain is difficult to do with low bit rate h264 web videos because of compression artifacts.
-Software like filmconvert can simulate film grain.

The “Hollywood” Cinema look and the BMCC
-It is usually the films that have the best story and artistic vision that win short film festival awards/get noticed, not the ones that are technically best.
-Having a good looking film can help. Having a look that is different than others can help.
-If you live in a city that have a cinema that screen 35 mm print or DCPs correctly, watch a lot of films at that cinema.

Hollywood look: Anamorphics
-Hollywood films are often shot with the Arri Alexa XT cameras that can use anamorphic film optics in 4/3 (4 perf) mode.
-The look from anamorphic lenses is difficult to do on a low budget.

Hollywood look: Fast cine prime lenses with shallow depth of field.
-Hollywood films often use fast cine prime lenses near open aperture to get shallow depth of field and bokeh.
-This look is easier to do on a budget.
-You need to use ND filters to get a shallow depth of field on a sunny day.
-With adapters the BMCC can use Super 35 mm film optics like the Cooke and other cine prime lenses that have a “Hollywood” look.

Hollywood look: Warmer white
-Hollywood films seldom use clipped/blown whites if that is not what they intend to use.
-100 percent white is almost never used.
-White is usually warmer than video monitor white (D65), it is closer to traditional film projection (around D60).

Hollywood look: 180 degree shutter
-Hollywood films almost always use a 180 degree shutter. Films with 360 degree shutter have a lot of motion blur.

Hollywood look:Conclusion
A film made with a cheap camera and cheap lenses using ND filter, 180 degree shutter, shallow depth of view and grain/noise can look more like a Hollywood film than a film with made with an expensive camera that has a “made for TV” look.

More info:

Equipment needed to use the Blackmagic Digital Cinema Camera

SSD drive

You need a supported SSD drive for RAW capture.
Blackmagic Support: Supported SSD drives

SanDisk Extreme PRO480 GB (supported)


Manual MFT photography lenses
You can’t use the active MFT lenses, but there are some manual MFT photography lenses like the fast de-clicked Voigtlander Nokton F0.95 (17.5mm 25mm 42.5mm) lenses:

Cine lenses
-are built for manual focusing with follow focus systems
-often lack “breathing” when focusing
-come in matched sets
-are expensive and are often rented.
Like these Cooke and Leica sets:

Cooke miniS4/i Cine Lens Set (18mm to 135mm)
bhphotovideo link

Leica Summicron-C T2.0 Lens Set (6 Lenses) with Case
bhphotovideo link

Focusing with just about any still photo zoom lens will create a breathing effect that is simply an optical design characteristic. There is no adjustment for this flaw within the lens. It’s part of the optical-mechanical design and is taken into consideration during the development of a lens. Breathing is a bad thing in cinema because it really pulls the audience out of the scene. It changes the field of view of the lens and appears as though the lens is zooming in and out during even a small focus pull. This is why cinema lenses are designed not to breath and add substantially to the cost in order to do so.

Duclos: Why Cinema Lenses Cost So Much

Used lenses
KEH and ebay sells used lenses like the Zeiss Contax lenses
Link to contax lenses at keh

If you build a set of Voigtlander Nokton, Zeiss Contax, Leica R, Nikon Ais or Zeiss ZF.2 lenses, you can do the Duclos Cine-mod on them.

For USD 250 each you get:
-80mm front with cap,
-focus gear
-de-clicked, damped aperture movement. Or USD 60 for just the declicked aperture.

5) What lenses work best with the Cine-Mod?
The lenses that benefit from the Cine-Mod the most would be Zeiss ZF.2 lenses and Leica R series lenses. Other lenses such as the older Nikon Ais series and Zeiss Contax lenses can also be used along with the Cine-Mod for cinema with great success.


Extra equipment

ND filters
For shallow depth of field in daylight.

The Arri Alexa FAQ recommends ND Filters with a far-red cut off filter on digital cameras:

While traditional ND filters work great for film, for digital cameras we recommend the use of ND filters that have a built-in far-red cut-off. Such filters are available from a number of manufacturers, often called “ND filters with an IR-cut off”. A single filter that combines an ND and a far-red cut off generally yields better results and fewer reflections than a traditional ND filter stacked on top of a separate IR cut off filter.

ND filters and matte boxes:
Bright Tangerine Misfit Atom Clamp-On Matte Box with Anti Reflective Tilt Bracket and 15mm LWS Rod Clamp

Tiffen 4 x 4″ Full Spectrum IRND 2.1 Filter (glass)

The microphone on the BMCC picks up the noise from the fan on the camera.
The Audio inputs on the BMCC:
-can be switched between line-in and microphone levels.
-does not have a knob for controlling input levels.
-does not have phantom power.

Professional shotgun microphones
Sennheiser MKH416
The shotgun mic with the best reviews at B&H PHOTO.)
bhphotovideo link

Field Mixer
Sound Devices 633 6-Input Compact Field Mixer and 10-Track Digital Recorder
The most sold field mixer at B&H PHOTO)


ikan Tilta ES-T07 Blackmagic Cinema Camera Rig


SmallHD 702
-3d lut support which is useful when recording in BMDFILM.

Electronic Viewfinder
Zacuto Gratical HD Micro OLED EVF 
Viewfinder with 3d lut support


Switronix PowerBase 70 Battery for Blackmagic Cinema Camera (12″ Cable)

Useful links:
Use this Angle of view/Field of view comparator to compare the field of view (FOV) on different sensors (16×9 recording area) and find what kind of lens you need.

Pre-made 3D LUT with “look” that can be used on Prores/CinemaDNG LOG recordings
Captain Hook Blackmagic Cinema Camera LUT 

Film stock 3D LUTs that can be used on Prores/CinemaDNG LOG recordings
Juan Melara: Print film emulation LUTs for download

Film grain and stock emulator software compatible with Blackmagic Cinema Camera footage

3D LUTs with film looks that can be used with Blackmagic Cinema Camera footage
Looklabs: Speedlooks

Contax Zeiss Survival Guide
Nick Morrison forum post

What is Angle of view/Field of view?

What is depth of field?

12 Things to Think About Before Committing to the Blackmagic Cinema Camera for Your Film


Philip Bloom:Sample BMCC footage